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MATERIAL BASICS FOR STRUCTURE TYPES

Austenitic stainless steels

Structure types of austenitic steel
Structure types of austenitic steel
  • Not magnetized (except standard austenitic cold forming martensite!)
  • Very good corrosion resisting qualities with increasing alloy content
  • Susceptible to stress corrosion cracking
  • High toughness even at low temperatures
  • Very good hot and cold formability (ductility, expansion)
  • Not curable by heat treatment, increase in strength by cold forming
  • Good weldability
  • High toughness even at low temperatures (Satz schon oben?!)
  • High thermal expansion coefficient
  • Low thermal conductivity

Ferritic stainless steels

Structure types of ferritic stainless steels
Structure types of ferritic stainless steels
  • Magnetizable
  • Limited weldability, coarse grain formation during welding, loss of impact strength, 475°C
  • Lower elongation (20%) compared to austenites
  • Limited machinability and cold workable
  • Lower strength, not curable and treatable
  • Not suitable for low temperatures
  • Not crevice corrosion resistant
  • High resistance to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking
  • Thermal expansion coefficient the same as engineering steel

Martensitic stainless steels

Structure types of martensitic stainless steels
Structure types of martensitic stainless steels
  • Magnetizable
  • High stability
  • Curable or hardenable by heat treatment
  • Moderate hot and cold formability
  • Heat treatment requirements, especially after welding
  • Lower elongation compared to austenites
  • High wear-resistance and edge-holding property
  • Low thermal expansion coefficient
  • High thermal conductivity

Manganese austenitic stainless steels

Structure types of Manganese austenitic stainless steel
Structure types of Manganese austenitic stainless steel
  • Cheaper than nickel austenitic stainless steels
  • High stability
  • Higher demands on cold formability by strain hardening amongst others
  • Very good deep drawing and hydroforming properties
  • Bad machinability
  • Moderate to relatively poor corrosion resistance
  • Difficult to weld (hot cracking)
  • High surface requirements during steelmaking
  • Inhomogeneous material properties with large cross sections

Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels (duplex stainless structure)

Structure types of duplex stainless steels
Structure types of duplex stainless steels
  • Magnetizable
  • 0.2% yield strength above the austenite, with good toughness values
  • Good corrosion resistance
  • Favorable fatigue strength
  • Good resistance to chlorine and hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking
  • Limited machining properties
  • In the variants with little to no molybdenum a very low 475°C embrittlement, i.e. the notched impact strength values remain sufficiently high
  • Good weldability
  • Moderate thermal expansion coefficient
  • Low thermal conductivity
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